Human Skeletal System

Types of Skeletons

  • Hydrostatic 'skeleton' - This is a 'skeleton' where an animal such as a jellyfish is filled with and supported by fluid.
  • Exoskeleton - An exoskeleton or external skeleton exists on the outside of the animal (e.g. the 'shell' of a crab).
  • Endoskeleton - An endoskeleton or internal skeleton is the backbone of an animal. This backbone can be composed of bone (e.g. human) or of more flexible cartilage (e.g. shark).

Functions of Skeletons

  • Provide support for body organs
  • Provide protection for vital organs such as the brain, heart and lungs
  • Provide a place of attachment of muscles for movement
  • Produce red blood cells and some white blood cells

Structure of Bone


Names of Some Common Bones

COMMON NAME OF BONE SCIENTIFIC NAME OF BONE
skull cranium
jawbone mandible
collarbone clavicle
shoulder blade scapula
breast bone sternum
backbone or spine vertebrae or vertebral column
tail bone coccyx
upper arm bone humerus
lower arm bone (thumb side) radius
lower arm bone (little finger side) ulna
thigh bone femur
kneecap patella
lower leg bone (inside) tibia
lower leg bone (outside) fibula


Structure of a Joint


Types of Joints

TYPE OF JOINT EXAMPLE TYPE OF MOVEMENT
Ball-and-socket joint Shoulder, hip Wide range of movement, easily dislocated
Hinge joint Elbow Movement in one direction only
Gliding joint Foot Many bones are held together by ligaments and glide across each other
Pivot joint Head and neck Rotation and up-and-down movement
Condylar joint Knee Movement in one direction, but with slight rotation
Saddle joint Thumb Movement in two directions
Ellipsoidal joint Wrist Movement is up-and-down, and side-to-side without rotation

Tendons and Ligaments


Human Muscular System

Types of Muscles


How Muscles Work


Sources of Muscle Energy


Main Elements of Fitness


Ways that Regular Exercise Helps the Body



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