Elements and Compounds

An Atom

  • Atom - smallest unit of all matter, that is composed of 3 sub-atomic particles called protons, electrons and neutrons
  • Proton - the 'heavy' positively-charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
  • Electron - the very 'light' negatively-charged particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom
  • Neutron - the 'heavy' uncharged particle in the nucleus of an atom

Atom Diagram


Atomic Number and Atomic Mass

Atomic Number Diagram


Atomic Diagrams


Elements and Compounds

Matter Schematic


Inert or Noble Gases


Ions (Charged Atoms)


Covalent and Ionic Compounds


Common Elements and Symbols to Learn

Element Symbol Element Name Element Symbol Element Name
H Hydrogen Mn Manganese
He Helium Fe Iron
Li Lithium Co Cobalt
C Carbon Ni Nickel
N Nitrogen Cu Copper
O Oxygen Zn Zinc
F Fluorine Br Bromine
Ne Neon Ag Silver
Na Sodium Sn Tin
Mg Magnesium I Iodine
Al Aluminium Ba Barium
Si Silicon W Tungsten
P Phosphorus Pt Platinum
S Sulphur Au Gold
Cl Chlorine Hg Mercury
Ar Argon Pb Lead
K Potassium Cr Chromium
Ca Calcium Ti Titanium
Pu Plutonium U Uranium



Naming Compounds

PREFIX OR SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLE
Mono- There is 1 atom of that type in that molecule Carbon monoxide (CO)
Di- There are 2 atoms of that type in the molecule Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Bi- Hydrogen is present in the molecule Sodium bicarbonate

(NaHCO3)

-ide There are only 2 types of atoms present in the molecule Lead oxide

(PbO)

-ate There are 3 or more types of atoms in the molecule, and 1 type is oxygen Calcium carbonate

(CaCO3)



Valency Table

1+ 2+ 3+ 1– 2– 3–
H 1+ Mg 2+ Al 3+ F 1– O 2–

oxide

PO4 3–

phosphate

Na 1+ Ca 2+ Fe 3+

ferric

Cl 1– S 2–

sulphide

Li 1+ Cu 2+ Br 1– CO3 2–

carbonate

K 1+ Zn 2+ OH 1–

hydroxide

SO4 2–

sulphate

Ag 1+ Pb 2+ NO3 1–

nitrate

NH4 1+

ammonium

Fe 2+

ferrous

HCO3 1–

bicarbonate



Working Out Formulae of Ionic Compounds
(The Cross-Over Method)

Cross-over Method Diagram


Examples of Chemical Names of Compounds

CHEMICAL FORMULA CHEMICAL NAME
C O2 carbon dioxide
C O carbon monoxide
Na Cl sodium chloride
Cu O copper oxide
Ag Br silver bromide
K I potassium iodide
H Cl hydrogen chloride (hydrochloric acid)
NH4 Cl ammonium chloride
K OH potassium hydroxide
Na OH sodium hydroxide
Ca (OH)2 calcium hydroxide
Ca S calcium sulphide
Na NO3 sodium nitrate
H NO3 hydrogen nitrate (nitric acid)
Na HCO3 sodium bicarbonate
Zn SO4 zinc sulphate
Mg CO3 magnesium carbonate
Ca SO4 calcium sulphate
Cu CO3 copper carbonate
Al PO4 aluminium phosphate
Fe SO4 iron sulphate
Fe CO3 iron carbonate
NH4 NO3 ammonium nitrate
NH4 HCO3 ammonium bicarbonate
H2 SO4 hydrogen sulphate (sulphuric acid)
Na2 SO4 sodium sulphate
(NH4)2 CO3 ammonium carbonate


Examples of Numbers and Types of Atoms

NAME OF SUBSTANCE CHEMICAL FORMULA ELEMENT OR COMPOUND NUMBER AND TYPE OF ATOMS IN MOLECULE
Hydrogen H2 element 2 hydrogen atoms
Carbon dioxide CO2 compound 1 carbon atom
2 oxygen atoms
Water H2O compound 2 hydrogen atoms
1 oxygen atom
Methane CH4 compound 1 carbon atom
4 hydrogen atoms
Sodium hydroxide NaOH compound 1 sodium atom
1 oxygen atom
1 hydrogen atom
Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 compound 1 calcium atom
2 oxygen atoms
2 hydrogen atoms



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