1. When a car brakes suddenly, the driver and passengers tend to keep going in the same direction and at the same speed as before braking. Seatbelts are therefore needed to stop them going through the windscreen.
  1. It is more difficult to push-start a stationary truck than it is to push a small sedan.
  2. It is more difficult to stop a moving truck than it is to stop a small sedan.

Distance and Displacement

Speed and Velocity

Speed (S) = Distance (D)
Time (T)

Distance (D) = Speed (S) × Time (T)

Time (T) = Distance (D)
Speed (S)

Average Speed = Total Distance
Total Time

Safe Driving

  1. Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) - Alcohol greatly affects a driver's ability.
  2. Age and Experience - Older drivers tend to have slower reflexes. However, younger drivers lack skills of anticipation and avoidance.
  3. Tyre Tread, Brake Condition and Road Conditions also affect a car's stopping ability.


Acceleration (a) = Final velocity (v2) – Initial velocity (v1)
Time (t)
Answer:a = (v2 – v1) = (50 - 0) = 50 = 10 m/s2


Momentum (kg.m/s) = Mass (kg) × Velocity (m/s)
Momentum = m × v
p = mv
Answer:   Momentum = mv
= m × v
= 100 × 5
= 500 kg.m/s