Metals

Properties of Metals


Chemical Reactions of Metals

  1. Metal + Acid Arrow Salt + Hydrogen
  2. Metal + Oxygen Arrow Metal Oxide
  3. Metal+Water Arrow Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen
Most Reactive

Up Arrow

Least Reactive
Potassium - K
Sodium - Na
Calcium - Ca
Magnesium - Mg
Aluminium - Al
Zinc - Zn
Iron - Fe
Tin - Sn
Lead - Pb
Copper - Cu
Silver - Ag
Gold - Au
  1. Painting - to prevent contact between the metal and oxygen
  2. Coating with Plastic, Oil, Grease or Tar - to prevent oxygen contact with the metal
  3. Coating with Metal - Galvanising iron with zinc
  4. Sacrificial Protection - enclosing a metal to be protected with a more reactive metal which will corrode first

Alloys

NAME OF ALLOY PERCENTAGE OF EACH METAL
Bronze Copper (92%), tin (6%), zinc (2%)
Brass Copper (70%), zinc (30%)
Steel Iron (99%), carbon (1%)
Stainless steel Iron (75%), carbon (1%), chromium (20%), nickel (5%)
Duralium Aluminium (95%), copper (4%), manganese (1%)
Magnalium Aluminium (70%), magnesium (30%)
Type metal Lead (72%), antimony (18%), tin (10%)
Solder Lead (50%), tin (50%)
Pewter Tin (85%), copper (7%), bismuth (6%), antimony (2%)
Sterling silver Silver (92.5%), copper (7.5%)
18 carat gold Gold (75%), silver (15%), copper (10%)
22 carat gold Gold (92%), silver (4.9%), copper (3.1%)


Mining and Minerals

  1. Open-Cut Mining involves digging a huge hole in the ground (e.g. iron, copper, uranium)
  2. Shaft Mining involves mining in tunnels (e.g. coal, gemstones)
  3. Dredging involves mixing large amounts of water with the crushed ore to allow the heavier minerals to settle to the bottom (e.g. tin, mineral sands)



Refining Metals


Smelting - Example One


Smelting - Example Two